COMMUNITY BRIEFING

The Local Impact of COVID-19

Dashboard of COVID-19 Early Economic Measures

Forsyth County and North Carolina — Local economic conditions are evolving faster than Forsyth Futures can measure using the main data sources we typically rely on to inform community decision making. To provide the most useful information possible for our community, this dashboard tracks a set of local economic measures identified through research and interviews with local experts. This information is intended to provide rough, early indication of change within our local economy.

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Data Note: Google updates mobility data intermittently, and some weeks may be missing.  Timing between bars in graph may not be equal.  

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NC 211 is a state-wide resource directory available to local residents who are looking for information on health and human services resources available in their community.

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This dashboard is updated weekly, though some data sources only update monthly. Last updated on September 10, 2020.

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Key Findings

This section summarizes key findings from the different components of this briefing.

African American and Hispanic/Latino residents are at a greater risk of being negatively affected by the economic impact of COVID-19.

This is due to higher poverty rates, a higher risk of falling into poverty if at-risk jobs were lost, and higher rates of being a renter versus homeowner. Additionally, African American renters are more likely than White renters to be cost burdened, leaving less income to buffer against the economic impact of COVID-19.

About 50% of adult workers in Forsyth County are employed in fields or occupations that are likely to experience job loss as a result of COVID-19.

While not all of these workers will lose their jobs, local leaders will need to keep a close eye on unemployment rates because the loss of income from these jobs could have significant consequences for local residents, particularly in terms of housing and financial stability.

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About 38% of Forsyth County residents live in households where housing is rented. An estimated 64% of residents in households that rent their homes and 77% of children in households that rent would experience a housing cost burden if workers with at-risk jobs in their households were to lose those jobs.

Additionally, 62% of residents in renting households that were previously experiencing burdensome rent costs have primary income earners working at-risk jobs. This is particularly problematic for housing security because renters tend to have less money in savings and less access to credit than homeowners and have not received the same federal relief from monthly payments as homeowners, which puts them at a particularly high risk of being displaced [10].

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Sections in this Community Briefing

An estimated 42% of all residents (and 59% of children in Forsyth County) would likely experience poverty if workers in their households employed in at-risk jobs were to lose those jobs.

This risk disproportionately impacts African American and Hispanic/Latino residents.

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Feeding America estimates that 19% of all Forsyth County residents and 27% of children are experiencing food insecurity [11].

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An estimated 61% of adult Hispanic/Latino males and 43% of adult Hispanic/Latina females do not have health insurance, which puts their families at significant financial risk if they contract COVID-19 and incur unexpected medical costs.

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As education shifts to remote learning done in the home, about 10% of children and 20% of Hispanic/Latino children live in households where all of the adults have at least some trouble speaking English.

Additionally, about 8% of children in Forsyth County live in a household where no adults have a high school diploma, which could potentially put children at long-term risk of falling behind in school and result in a long-term loss of human capital, which may disproportionately impact some communities [3].

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Expert and Literature Review
of Anticipated Economic Impact

Based on a literature review and interviews
with local experts.

Methodology and Potential Limitations

Given the unprecedented nature of the COVID-19 crisis, Forsyth Futures is working to provide critical information on the pandemic’s potential local impact. Our goal with this reporting is to support and encourage data-informed decision making as local response efforts are developed and implemented.

In late March, we began communicating with local experts in the fields of business, economics, and sociology to gather perspectives on the current state of Forsyth County’s economy and projections on what we might expect in the coming months and years.

In addition to expert interviews, we consulted relevant literature from peer-reviewed, academic, and editorial sources to better inform the information compiled in this community briefing.

References and Citations

Content in this Briefing is Subject to Change

We recognize that COVID-19 presents a complex, unprecedented, rapidly-changing set of factors that are undoubtedly affecting our community in major ways. The content collected from both the expert interviews and the literature review reflects the best information available at the time it was gathered. We are confident in this content and we acknowledge that information and perspectives are changing in an ongoing way as we collectively learn more about COVID-19. In an effort to support transparent information sharing, the dates of all interviews and publications cited will be included in the metadata section (when available).

Disruptions and Shocks

Economic impacts will occur in phases while we are still collectively learning more about the illness itself, when industries can safely reopen, and possible support for families who have lost income due to loss of work [12]. These factors can greatly impact recovery efforts especially as it relates to employment and restarting the economy.

The economy will experience disruptions to the supply chain, loss of work due to illness, layoffs, and restrictions and/or closings (i.e. travel restrictions impacting the hospitality industry, businesses deemed nonessential, etc.) [3][13]. As a result of layoffs, reduced income, and limited buying power, the economy will experience a “demand shock” resulting in loss of profit for businesses, especially small businesses [13][14].

Individuals and families at all levels will experience economic impacts as a result of the pandemic; however, the degree of impact may differ based on vulnerability factors that could intensify an individual or household’s economic strain [15].

Potential Short, Mid, and Long-term Impacts

.In discussing the potential economic impact of the COVID-19 event, various articles and experts clustered potential impacts by assessing short-term and medium to long-term economic impacts of the pandemic.

Conditions are changing daily and communities are already experiencing specific impacts of COVID-19. Families and individuals are seeing a reduction in work hours, layoffs, and limited income especially for hourly workers [15]. Based on expert interviews and a review of literature, potential short-term anticipated economic impacts include:

  • Idle working status where employees are still being paid but may be unable to work from home
  • Increased rates of remote work [5].
  • Job layoffs, loss in wages, and/or a reduction in salary [3][5].
  • Increased unemployment claims filed [5].
  • Increased risk of exposure to the virus for essential workers, which may result in an increase in medical bills and treatment costs [3][12][14].
  • Limited employment opportunities for individuals in the hospitality and service sector [5].
  • Initial loss of profit for small businesses [16][17].
  • Increased food and housing insecurity[3][16].

Another sector immediately impacted by the COVID-19 event is small business, which may rely on sales or contracts [16][17]. “The implications for small businesses are huge. For individuals that rely on sales they are almost at zero dollars — their lives have changed in the blink of an eye” [16].

Potential medium and or long-term impacts may include:

  • The potential for long-term health issues and medical cost for individuals who contracted the virus[3][5].
  • Default on loans due to lack of income and ability to make payments [5].
  • Reduced labor force participation, demand, and production in various industries [13].
  • Increased remote work [5][14].
  • Increased virtual K-12 education [5].
  • Lack of investment in the local economy as people turn to companies like Amazon [3].
  • Hospitals and the medical sector may see an increase in uninsured patients and a reduction in more profitable elective surgeries. This may lead to a loss of profits for hospitals in the long-term [3].
  • Widening inequality and limited social and economic mobility [3][12].

It’s important to note, Federal, State and local government agencies are exploring additional supportive services and funding to assist communities as we collectively navigate this unprecedented event [18].

Vulnerability Factors

While a large majority of our community is being impacted by the unexpected economic shock of COVID-19, some residents are more vulnerable to its impacts than others. For example, access to health insurance, specifically health insurance that covers the bulk of cost of care with limited out of pocket cost, is one of many factors that may make some Forsyth County residents more vulnerable than others to negative economic outcomes as a result of the pandemic.

To illustrate this point, consider that a doctor and a sanitation worker in a medical facility may be exposed to the same risk of getting sick at work and incurring unexpected medical expenses. However, if the doctor has health insurance and the sanitation worker does not, the economic impact of contracting COVID-19 would be different for their two households, even though the risk factor, getting sick at work, is the same [14].

When assessing potential economic impacts of COVID-19, as well as potential relief efforts, it’s important to consider who is most vulnerable to the unexpected economic shock [19]. Below, we provide a brief snapshot of potential vulnerability factors related to COVID-19 that may increase the potential economic strain on some residents more than others; this does not represent an extensive list.

Types of Workers

Furloughed or Laid-off Workers: Some industries have experienced reduced hours, complete closures, and/or an increase in layoffs, all of which can impact a household’s income [15][16].

In an effort to enforce social distancing measures, businesses may have to reduce operating hours which could result in reduced hours for employees, a reduced customer base, reduced sales, and potential closure. Many small or independently-owned businesses, specifically, have limited financial reserves to weather potential losses and may be at a higher risk of closure than other types of businesses [3][12][16][20].

Tipped Workers: Jobs that rely on tips (i.e., “front end” restaurant workers like servers) who are no longer able to work due to widespread suspension of dine-in services may experience increased layoffs or a reduction in hours and income [21].

Non-Essential Workers: Non-essential jobs, and/or jobs that require face-to-face interactions may also experience a reduction in operations which could lead to employee layoffs and closures [3][17].

The Department of Homeland Security designated a list of essential infrastructure workers who “ensure continuity of functions critical to public health and safety, as well as economic and national security.” This list is not considered a federal directive and includes a wide variety of industries and workers which may differ from state to state [22].

Residents with Limited Resources

Renters: As stay-at-home measures are implemented to limit the spread of COVID-19, increases in layoffs and reductions in hours can be particularly financially challenging for renters. Renters are less likely to have significant savings to cover the cost of housing in the event of lost income and may potentially face housing displacement [10].

Households with Low Income: Individuals or households who were making low wages or who recently became eligible for supportive services before COVID-19 may struggle to pay for food and other expenses like rent and utilities due to limited access to resources like savings and credit. Agencies providing supportive services may experience enrollment issues due to the high demand associated with COVID-19 [15].

Low-wage workers, specifically in the health aid, hospitality, retail, and caregiving sectors are more susceptible to the economic impact of COVID-19 due to existing low wages, potential economic insecurity, and increased risk of exposure should they continue to work [23].

Households without Savings: Households with a lack of savings do not have a financial buffer against lost income are more vulnerable to economic insecurity associated with COVID-19 if they experience a job loss and/or other household financial reductions [24].

Uninsured and Underinsured: In the event an individual or household becomes infected with the COVID-19 virus, the unexpected cost of treatment, and/or inadequate health insurance coverage, and/or complete lack of health insurance coverage may result in additional financial strain and out-of-pocket expenses to cover the cost of care [3][14][22][25].

Residents Excluded from Supportive Services and Relief Programs

Undocumented Residents: The lack of a social security number may prevent an undocumented individual from receiving stimulus funds through the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (CARES Act) [26][27].

Residents without Work Status: Residents without work status documentation and individuals who work in informal positions may not have access to supportive programs. [14][27].

Historically Marginalized Residents

Non-white Workers: Due to historical structural, social, and economic inequality which contribute to inadequate access to health care, employment, sufficient wages, and income, African American and Hispanic/Latino workers are more susceptible to the health and economic impacts of COVID-19 [5][12][28][29].

Women: When considering marginalized groups, the literature also highlights the potential burden women who work in low-wage service jobs may face as it relates to the potential loss of wages if exposed to the virus if women are primarily responsible for caretaking of children or a sick relative who may contract the virus [23].

Exacerbating Existing Vulnerabilities

The vulnerability factors highlighted above are discussed in context of COVID-19, however some experts argue that COVID-19 has simply illuminated the impact of chronic stressors and lasting presence of inequality on communities, especially during a major crisis event [19][29]. While COVID-19 is impacting the community at many levels, the literature and experts point to the disproportionate health and economic impact of COVID-19 for individuals with low income, for communities of color, and highlight the similarities between disparities seen during past recessions and natural disasters [5][12][29][30]. Understanding vulnerability factors as well as the role of chronic stressors and long-standing structural inequality are important to consider when evaluating the economic impact of COVID-19, access to economic relief and supportive services, and the ability to recover from economic shock [29].

Federal Response

Listed below are notable COVID-19 responses initiated at the federal level, specifically those that are directly relevant to vulnerable populations:

 

The Coronavirus Preparedness and Response Supplemental Appropriations Act was signed into law on March 6th, 2020. The act temporarily waived Medicare restrictions associated with telehealth access for services [31][32].

 

The Families First Coronavirus Response Act was signed into law on March 18th, 2020 [33]:

 

  • The act provided emergency paid sick leave, nutrition assistance, unemployment benefits, increased federal funding for Medicaid, and covered the cost of COVID-19 testing [31][33].
  • The act included provisions related to emergency and medical/family paid sick leave which applies to public employers, employers with fewer than 500 employees, and COVID-19 related need for leave of absence [33].
  • Importantly, employees who work in certain health care fields, emergency responders, and organizations with fewer than 50 employees were excluded from emergency paid sick leave [33].
  • The act increased funding for unemployment benefits for the 2020 fiscal year to be distributed among states to provide unemployment benefits and administration of the process [33].

 

The Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (CARES Act) was signed into law on March 27th, 2020. In addition to providing additional funding for unemployment benefits, the act authorized one-time economic impact payments for US citizens:

 

  • The act implemented one-time economic impact payments of $1,200 (for individuals) and additional funding for households with children [31][34][35]. Payments from the act are intended to reduce financial strain for individuals and households during the COVID-19 pandemic [26].
  • Eligibility requirements to receive the one-time economic impact payments include: must be a U.S. citizen or U.S. resident alien; cannot be claimed as a dependent on someone else’s tax return; must have a social security number that is valid for employment and if either spouse is a member of the U.S. Armed Forces at any time during the taxable year, then only one spouse needs to have a valid SSN; Adjusted gross income must be below an amount based on your filing status and the number of your qualifying children.

 

The Paycheck Protection Program and Healthcare Enhancement Act was signed into law on April 24th, 2020:

 

  • $484 billion dollars were designated to replenish the Paycheck Protection Program (PPP) intended to support small businesses and keep individuals on payroll [31].
  • The act also designated funds to support public health efforts such as testing and funding for hospitals [31].

State Response

Listed below are notable COVID-19 responses initiated at the state level (North Carolina), specifically those that are directly relevant to vulnerable populations:

Executive Order No. 118 went into effect on March 17, 2020, and broadened unemployment benefits for individuals who lost employment or experienced a significant reduction in hours as a result of COVID-19 [36].

Executive Order No. 124 went into effect on March 31, 2020, and prohibited utility disconnections and service fees. The order provided guidance for telecommunications providers, banks, and mortgage lenders related to late/delayed client payments and assistance for customers who are experiencing economic hardships as a result of COVID-19 [37]. The Executive Order also encouraged sheriffs offices and the courts to restrict evictions [37]. The order was effective for 60 days unless it was retracted, reinstated, or extended [37]. While a temporary hold on evictions is beneficial, communities across the US and the literature points to increasing fear of massive evictions once moratoriums are lifted [38].

Executive Order No. 134 went into effect on April 20th, 2020. The order extended unemployment benefits for furloughed North Carolina residents [39].

Executive Order No. 142 went into effect May 30th, 2020. The order extended the prohibition of utility disconnection and temporarily prohibited evictions for residents of North Carolina [40]. The prohibition for residential evictions will continue for 21 days after the order was signed but may be extended by another executive order [40]. Disconnection restrictions related to utilities have been extended to July 29th, 2020, and providers can not charge penalties or interest associated with late fees [40]. This order may be extended [40].

Executive Order No. 143 went into effect on June 4, 2020. The order is intended to combat COVID-19’s disproportionate impact on black and brown communities [41]. This order established the North Carolina Pandemic Recovery Office, and created a task force charged with eliminating economic disparities and ensuring coronavirus-related recovery efforts and resources are equally distributed across the state [41] [42].

Extended Analyses: Economically Vulnerable Residents by the Numbers

The numbers provided in this section are estimates based on the 2018 American Community Survey and other local data.

Residents Who May be Vulnerable to Economic Shocks

While most Forsyth County residents are being impacted by COVID-19, some residents are more economically vulnerable to the negative impacts of the pandemic than others [14]. For more information about vulnerability, click here. This section looks at how many Forsyth County residents may be particularly vulnerable to the negative economic impacts of the pandemic.

Residents with Previously Insufficient or Marginally Sufficient Incomes

Why income insufficiency matters: The Federal Poverty Thresholds (sometimes known as “The Poverty Line”) is a measure of whether or not residents are making enough money to meet their basic needs. Forsyth Futures’ literature review and conversations with experts found that residents who are already not making enough income to meet their basic needs or are just barely making enough income to meet their basic needs are at a higher risk than residents with more income of not being able to meet those needs if they experience an economic shock, like losing a job, having an unexpected bill, or getting their hours cut at work [14][24]. This may make these workers more economically vulnerable than other workers if they lose their jobs or become ill and have unexpected medical bills as a result of the pandemic [12][14].

Poverty Thresholds

The U.S. Census Bureau definition of poverty thresholds is dependent upon the ages and number of residents in a family; families making less than this threshold annually are considered to be experiencing poverty. In the table below, the average threshold used to define whether or not a family experiences poverty (the weighted average threshold) is listed next to the family size for reference [43].

 

Household SizeWeighted Average Thresholds
One Person$12,784
Two People$16, 247
Three People$19,985
Four People$25,701
Five People$30,459
Residents Previously Below Poverty Thresholds

  • In 2018, about 17% of residents in Forsyth County were experiencing poverty, and approximately an additional 11% of residents were just above the poverty threshold (making less than 150% of the poverty threshold).
  • Hispanic and Latino residents were the most likely to experience poverty in 2018, with 40% of all residents experiencing poverty. About 24% of African American residents experienced poverty, and about 10% of White, non-Hispanic residents experienced poverty.
  • Although there may appear to be a significant difference in the data visualization, analysts cannot be sure that adult females experienced poverty at a higher rate than adult males in 2018 because of the margin of error associated with those estimates.
  • Children had the highest rates of poverty, with 29% of children experiencing poverty, and working-age adults experienced poverty about twice as often as adults over the age of 65.
  • Between 2014 and 2018, residents living in the eastern area of Winston-Salem were more likely to experience poverty than residents in other areas of the county. Since communities with higher numbers of residents experiencing economic distress tend to cut spending more than other communities in times of economic crisis [44], these areas are also at a higher risk of decreased local spending than other parts of the county which could magnify the economic impact of COVID-19.

If you have questions about this data, how to interpret it, or if you want guidance on how to use the data for planning purposes, please contact info@forsythfutures.org. Please be sure to specify which data you are asking about in your email.

Residents Falling Below Threshold if At-Risk Job is Lost

  • About 42% of Forsyth County residents are at risk of falling below the poverty thresholds if household members with at-risk jobs were to lose those jobs.
  • Working-age adults would have much higher rates of poverty than older adults if at-risk jobs were lost. An estimated 44% of working-age adults are at risk of experiencing poverty if at-risk jobs are lost, versus 11% of older adults. Children under the age of 18 have the highest rate at 59%.
  • Minority residents are at a higher risk than White, non-Hispanic residents of falling below the poverty thresholds if at-risk jobs were lost.

Some Forsyth County residents work in fields or occupations that are at a particular risk of job loss as a result of COVID-19. These analyses reflect the percentage of Forsyth County residents who would be below the poverty threshold if these jobs were lost. It should be noted that this analysis looks at household income, which may include unrelated people living together, instead of family income in calculating poverty. This is a slightly different definition of poverty than is used in the analysis of residents previously below the poverty thresholds.

If you have questions about this data, how to interpret it, or if you want guidance on how to use the data for planning purposes, please contact info@forsythfutures.org. Please be sure to specify which data you are asking about in your email.

Residents Who Rent their Homes

Why renters may be more vulnerable: Research shows that renters on average have less money in savings and are more likely to have difficulties paying their housing costs than homeowners [10]. Recent federal legislation also provided homeowners with the ability to defer mortgage payments during the COVID-19 crisis, but did not provide similar protections for renters, potentially putting them at a higher risk of losing their housing if they lose income as a result of COVID-19 related job loss or medical bills [10].

Renters

  • In 2018, about 38% of residents lived in a rental property.
  • Minority residents are more likely to be renters than White, non-Hispanic residents.
  • Older adults were less likely to live in a rental property compared to working adults and children.

If you have questions about this data, how to interpret it, or if you want guidance on how to use the data for planning purposes, please contact info@forsythfutures.org. Please be sure to specify which data you are asking about in your email.

Cost-Burdened Renters

  • In 2018, roughly 47% of residents who lived in rental properties were cost burdened.
  • About 56% of children who live in rental properties live in cost-burdened households.
  • African American residents are significantly more likely to live in cost-burdened rental properties compared to non-Hispanic White residents. Comparisons cannot be made between Hispanic or Latino residents and the other racial groups due to estimates being within the margin of error.

This section defines renters experiencing housing cost burdened as those spending 30% or more of their gross income on rent.

Racial/ethnic and sex differences in cost-burdened households could be due to the margin of error in the data.

If you have questions about this data, how to interpret it, or if you want guidance on how to use the data for planning purposes, please contact info@forsythfutures.org. Please be sure to specify which data you are asking about in your email.

Renters with a Primary Income Earner Who has an At-Risk Job

  • An estimated 56% of people living in rental properties are in households where the primary income earner has an at-risk job.
  • Among residents living in rental properties, Hispanic/Latino residents are much less likely to have a primary income earner in an at-risk field than African American and White, non-Hispanic residents.

The differences between males and females are within the margin of error.

If you have questions about this data, how to interpret it, or if you want guidance on how to use the data for planning purposes, please contact info@forsythfutures.org. Please be sure to specify which data you are asking about in your email.

Cost-Burdened Renters with Primary Income Earner in an At-Risk Job

In 2018, 62% of rental occupants who were cost burdened lived in a household with a primary income earner that had an at-risk job.

Racial/ethnic and sex differences in cost-burdened households with the primary income earner in an at-risk job could be due to the margin of error in the data.

If you have questions about this data, how to interpret it, or if you want guidance on how to use the data for planning purposes, please contact info@forsythfutures.org. Please be sure to specify which data you are asking about in your email.

Renters Cost Burdened if At-Risk Jobs Were Lost

  • An estimated 64% of residents living in rental properties would be cost burdened if the workers with at-risk jobs in their households were to lose their jobs.
  • 77% of children living in rented properties live in households that would be cost burdened if the workers with at-risk jobs in their households were to lose their jobs.

Racial/Ethnic differences and sex differences for this variable are within the margin of error.

If you have questions about this data, how to interpret it, or if you want guidance on how to use the data for planning purposes, please contact info@forsythfutures.org. Please be sure to specify which data you are asking about in your email.

Residents Who May be Impacted by COVID-19 in Particular

This report focuses on the economic outcomes of COVID-19. Because these economic outcomes are being driven by a pandemic specifically, there are some economic outcomes that are specific to this crisis. For example, residents who catch the virus may have unexpected medical bills, which could impact them economically [29]. And, while any economic recession could increase the risk of food insecurity, specific measures being put in place to prevent the spread of the virus could interrupt the ways that even previously food insecure residents access food.

Residents Without Health Insurance

Why residents without health insurance may be vulnerable: residents who do not have access to health insurance or have high out-of-pocket copays may incur significant medical bills if they are hospitalized as a result of COVID-19 [29]. This risk is a particular concern for residents who are essential workers [29] or live in close proximity to essential workers who may be at higher risk of exposure to the virus [3][12][14]. In assessing the level of economic risk that not having health insurance poses, it is also important to consider how exposure to chronic stressors and inequality [19], such as poverty, structural and interpersonal racism, classism, lack of a livable wage, access to healthy food, and dense living conditions influence the likelihood of exposure to the virus coupled with having pre-existing conditions that could make an individual more likely to be hospitalized if they contract the virus [3][12][14][29].

Residents Without Health Insurance

  • Roughly 11% of residents do not have health insurance.
  • More adult males than females lack health insurance.
  • More Hispanic/Latino residents reported having no health insurance compared to non-Hispanic White and African-American residents.
  • 61% of Hispanic and Latino adult males do not have health insurance, the least of any demographic. For example, Hispanic/Latino adult males are more than seven times as likely to not have health insurance as White, non-Hispanic males. Among women, 43% of Hispanic and Latina adult females do not have health insurance.
  • Low-income residents are significantly less likely to have health insurance compared to middle and upper income residents.
  • 7% of residents who own their home don’t have health insurance compared to 15% of those who rent. Since renters tend to have less savings and access to credit than homeowners [10], this puts these households at particular economic risk if they contract COVID-19 and incur unexpected medical bills.

Residents with insurance may still be economically vulnerable if their insurance coverage is inadequate or has high out-of-pocket costs.

If you have questions about this data, how to interpret it, or if you want guidance on how to use the data for planning purposes, please contact info@forsythfutures.org. Please be sure to specify which data you are asking about in your email.

Residents Who are Food Insecure

Why they may be vulnerable: as families lose income, more residents are likely to become food insecure as well and may not be as well connected to grocery stores and other food supply resources [3][15].

Residents Experiencing Food Insecurity
2018 RatesProjected 2020 Rates
Feeding America estimates that in 2018, about 14% of Forsyth County residents were experiencing food insecurity, and that about 19% of children were in food insecure households [11].Feeding America also studied the potential impact of COVID-19 on food insecurity rates, predicting that 19% of all Forsyth County residents and about 27% of children are food insecure in 2020 [45].

COVID-19 and Employment

Social distancing practices, shelter-in-place orders, and public health measures have resulted in a significant loss of employment for many residents [5]. If the economy takes time to regain strength after the social distancing measures are lifted, the resulting slowdown in the economy could continue to impact jobs [5]. This section looks at Forsyth County residents who are at risk of losing employment or experiencing a cutback in hours.

Workers at Risk of Job Loss

The literature review and expert interviews identified some occupations and fields that may be at particular risk of job loss. Residents who were identified as those at risk for losing their jobs were residents who reported working in an occupation that requires close contact with other people or who reported working in a field, like the arts and entertainment, that was identified in the literature or by experts as a field likely to lose jobs as a result of the pandemic and subsequent recession.

People Working in Fields Where Job Loss is At-Risk

  • About 50% of adult workers in Forsyth County work in occupations or fields that are likely to experience job loss.
  • While it appears that females are slightly more likely to work in these at risk jobs than males, that difference could be due to the margin of error in the data.
  • There aren’t clear differences between residents working at-risk jobs by race and ethnicity alone, but when looking at sex and race/ethnicity together, less than half of Hispanic or Latino men have at-risk jobs, which is lower than other racial and sex categories.
  • More US citizens, about 51%, work at-risk jobs compared to residents who are not citizens, about 34%.

If you have questions about this data, how to interpret it, or if you want guidance on how to use the data for planning purposes, please contact info@forsythfutures.org. Please be sure to specify which data you are asking about in your email.

Residents in Households with Primary Income Earner Working an At-Risk Job

  • About 53% of Forsyth County residents live in households where the primary income earner is employed in a field that is likely to experience job loss.
  • Hispanic and Latino residents are the least likely to live in households where the primary income earner has an at-risk job. About 40% of Hispanic and Latino residents live in households where the primary income earner has an at-risk job, compared to about 54% of White, non-Hispanic residents and 61% of African-American residents.
  • A larger share of African-American residents than White, non-Hispanic residents appear to live in households in which the primary income earner has an at-risk job, but the difference is within the margin of error for the two estimates.
  • Older adults are less likely than children and working-age adults to live in a household where the primary income earner has an at-risk job, but the differences between children and working-age adults could be within the margin of error.

If you have questions about this data, how to interpret it, or if you want guidance on how to use the data for planning purposes, please contact info@forsythfutures.org. Please be sure to specify which data you are asking about in your email.

Part-Time and Seasonal Employees

Why part-time and seasonal employees may be vulnerable:part-time and seasonal employees are at the highest risk of being laid off during an economic shock [5].

Workers Working Less than Full Time Year Round

  • In 2018, about 28% of adult workers worked less than full-time year-round.
  • An estimated 24% of male workers work less than full-time annually compared to 32% of female workers.
  • There are not clear statistical differences in annual full-time work looking at race/ethnicity alone, however, when looking at race/ethnicity and sex together Hispanic/Latino males are less likely to work less than full-time annually compared to both African-American males and females, Hispanic or Latina females, and White, Non-Hispanic females.

If you have questions about this data, how to interpret it, or if you want guidance on how to use the data for planning purposes, please contact info@forsythfutures.org. Please be sure to specify which data you are asking about in your email.

Residents in Households with Primary Income Earner Working Less than Full Time Year Round

  • 14% of the population live in households where the primary income earner works less than full time year round.
  • 34% of older adults, or those who are 65 and older, live in a household where the primary income earner works less than full-time year round compared to 12% of children and 13% of working age adults.
  • The difference between the percentage of African American residents and White, non-Hispanic residents living in households where the primary income earner works less than full-time year round is within the margin of error for the two measures.

If you have questions about this data, how to interpret it, or if you want guidance on how to use the data for planning purposes, please contact info@forsythfutures.org. Please be sure to specify which data you are asking about in your email.

Essential Workers

Workers classified as essential are allowed to continue working during a shelter-in-place order. Some workers in essential fields may still be laid off or experience a reduction in hours, depending on their specific employment situation [3][22]. For example, food service is an essential business, but staff at restaurants that are closed or reducing staff capacity while shifting to offering takeout or delivery may still be laid off or experience a reduction in hours [21].

While some essential workers will continue working through the crisis, essential workers who are still working in fields where they work face-to-face with other residents may be at particular risk of contracting COVID-19 [3][12][22]. Workers without access to health insurance or paid sick leave [3] or who have less money in savings may be more economically vulnerable than others if they contract COVID-19 [22][24][25].

While schools are closed due to the pandemic, some households in which all adults are employed as essential workers will also need emergency childcare services to care for their children while they work [12].

Essential workers in this report are defined based on an analysis by The Brookings Institution that used the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) to identify industries that correlated with the Department of Homeland Security’s definitions of “essential critical infrastructure” [22]. Forsyth Futures’ analysts classified NAICS codes identified in the main list provided by Brookings as “likely essential” and the industries identified by Brookings as likely containing non-essential workers along with some essential workers as “possibly essential”. All other workers were identified as “non-essential”.

Essential Workers vs. Non-essential Workers

  • An estimated 56% of Forsyth County residents are non-essential workers, with 13% estimated to be possibly essential and 30% estimated to be likely essential.
  • Female and African-American residents are the most likely to be essential workers, and African American female workers are the most likely to be identified as “likely essential” with 44% of African-American female residents being identified as “likely essential”.
  • An estimated 11% of likely essential workers have jobs that require face-to-face interactions and are unlikely to be able to be done remotely, which could put these workers at higher risk of exposure to COVID-19.
  • Notably, 83% of Hispanic/Latino females are not essential workers.
  • Differences in essential worker status between age groups were generally within the margin of error.

If you have questions about this data, how to interpret it, or if you want guidance on how to use the data for planning purposes, please contact info@forsythfutures.org. Please be sure to specify which data you are asking about in your email.

Residents in Households with Face-to-Face Essential Workers

  • An estimated 6% of the population live in a household with a face-to-face essential worker.
  • Approximately 11% of residents in upper-income households are in households with face-to-face essential workers compared to 5% of residents in middle income and lower income households, respectively.
  • About 7% of residents who live with a face-to-face essential worker do not have health insurance.
  • About 8% of adults over the age of 65 live in households with essential workers who have jobs requiring face-to-face contact, but because of the margin of error in the data, older adults are not clearly more likely to live with face-to-face essential workers than working-age adults.

The margin of error for children living in households with face-to-face essential workers was too high for the data to be useful.

If you have questions about this data, how to interpret it, or if you want guidance on how to use the data for planning purposes, please contact info@forsythfutures.org. Please be sure to specify which data you are asking about in your email.

Potential Long-term Educational Outcomes

One way that the COVID-19 pandemic could impact long-term social mobility in Forsyth County is through disruption of education. Barriers related to limited internet access, dependable devices, language barriers, reading level of guardians, or other challenges to support children’s remote education could increase learning loss and education inequality [3][46].

The transition to online education may also be disruptive to current college students, especially those who do not have access to broadband internet at home [46].

Children in Homes with Adults Who Do Not Speak English Very Well
  • 10% of children in Forsyth County live in a household with adults who have at least some difficulty speaking English.
  • 15% of elementary school students and 20% of Hispanic/Latino children live in households where there are no adults who speak English very well.
Children in Homes with Adults by Highest Level of Adult Education

  • About 35% of children in Forsyth County live in households where adults have a high school diploma or less, and about 39% of children live in households where adults have a bachelor’s degree or higher.
  • Children from minority populations generally have parents with lower levels of educational attainment compared to their White, non-Hispanic peers.
  • 63% of White, non-Hispanic children under the age of 18 have parents who have at least a Bachelor’s degree compared to only 25% of African American children.

Some data in this visualization were omitted because of very large margins of error.

If you have questions about this data, how to interpret it, or if you want guidance on how to use the data for planning purposes, please contact info@forsythfutures.org. Please be sure to specify which data you are asking about in your email.

College Students Without Access to Broadband Internet at Home

95% of college students in Forsyth County have internet access.

References and Citations

NumberCitation
1NC Department of Health and Human Services. (n.d.) Symptoms and testing for COVID-19. NCDHHS. https://www.ncdhhs.gov/divisions/public-health/covid19/symptoms-and-testing-covid-19

2Lubik, T. & Waddell, S. (2020, March 31). COVID-19 and the U.S. economy. Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond. https://www.richmondfed.org/publications/research/coronavirus/economic_impact_covid-19_03-31-20
3Dalton, T. (2020, March 30). Personal interview.
4OpenTable (n.d.) The state of the restaurant industry. OpenTable. https://www.opentable.com/state-of-industry
5Madjd-Sadjadi, Z. (2020, March 30). Personal interview.
6Hotel Insights (n.d.) Can Google search results predict hotel occupancy rates? SiteMinder. https://www.siteminder.com/r/trends-advice/hotel-insights/google-search-results-predict-hotel-occupancy/
7Google. (2020). See how your community is moving around differently due to COVID-19. COVID-19 Community Mobility Reports. https://www.google.com/covid19/mobility/
8Bui, Q. & Wolfers, J. (2020, March) More than 3 million Americans lost their jobs last week. See your state. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/03/26/upshot/coronavirus-millions-unemployment-claims.html
9Torres, L. & Day, W. (n.d.) Single-family housing construction permits. Real Estate Center Texas A&M University. https://assets.recenter.tamu.edu/Documents/Articles/2046-6.pdf
10Choi, J., Goodman, L. & Zhu, J. (2020, March 25). We must act quickly to protect millions of vulnerable renters. Urban Wire: Housing and Housing Finance. The Blog of the Urban Institute.
11Map the Meal Gap. (n.d.). Retrieved June 25, 2020, from http://map.feedingamerica.org/county/2018/child/north-carolina/county/forsyth)
12Richardson, C. (2020, April 1). Personal interview.
13Conerly, B. (2020, March 20). Economic Forecast Update March 20, 2020 For COVID-19, Coronavirus Impacts. Retrieved from
https://www.forbes.com/sites/billconerly/2020/03/20/economic-forecast-update-march-20-2020-for-covid-19-coronavirus-impacts/#5779acbb2f07
14Regan, M. (2020, March 30). Personal interview.
15Ananat, E. & Gassman-Pines, A. (2020) Snapshot of the COVID crisis impact on working families. The EconoFact Network.
16Yacinthe, M. (2020, March 31). Personal interview.
17Younger, A. (2020, March 27). Personal interview.
18Davis, C. (2020, April 15). House Democrats introduce plan to pay Americans $2,000 a month until economy recovers from COVID-19. Business Insider.https://www.businessinsider.com/americans-would-receive-2000-a-month-under-house-democrats-plan-2020-4
19Posner, M. (2020, May 14). Coronavirus pandemic reveals our economic inequality. Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/michaelposner/2020/05/14/coronavirus-pandemic-reveals-our-economic-inequality/#68370f6279fe
20Waldmann, J. (2020, May 13). The real-time impact coronavirus is having on small businesses and workers. Homebase. https://joinhomebase.com/blog/real-time-covid-19-data/
21Gangopadhyaya, A. & Waxman, E. (2020, March 26). Food service and preparation workers and the COVID-19 Pandemic. The Urban Institute. https://www.urban.org/research/publication/food-service-and-preparation-workers-and-covid-19-pandemic
22Tomer, A. & Kane, J. (2020, March 31). How to protect essential workers during COVID-19. Brookings. https://www.brookings.edu/research/how-to-protect-essential-workers-during-covid-19/
23Simon, M. (2020, March 19). Women and the hidden burden of the coronavirus. The Hill. https://thehill.com/changing-america/respect/equality/488509-the-hidden-burden-of-the-coronavirus-on-women
24Parker, K., Menasce-Horowitz, J. & Brown, A. (2020, April 21). About half of lower-income americans report household job or wage loss due to COVID-19. Pew Research Center. https://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2020/04/21/about-half-of-lower-income-americans-report-household-job-or-wage-loss-due-to-covid-19/
25Mather, M., & Jarosz. (2020, March 26). Workers face the high risk during the coronavirus pandemic: Four in 10 food preparers and servers are low-income. Retrieved from https://www.prb.org/workers-at-risk-during-the-covid-19-pandemic-four-in-10-food-preparers-and-servers-are-low-income/
26Internal Revenue Service. (2020). Economic Impact Payment Information Center: Eligibility. Retrieved from https://www.irs.gov/coronavirus/economic-impact-payment-information-center
27Appelbaum, E. & Fremstad, S. (2020). The us response to covid-19: What's in federal legislation and what's not, but still needed. Center for Economic Policy and Research. https://cepr.net/the-u-s-response-to-covid-19-whats-in-federal-legislation-and-whats-not-but-still-needed/
28Gould, E. & Wilson, V. (2020, June 1). Black workers face two of the most lethal preexisting conditions for coronavirus- racism and economic inequality. The Economic Policy Institute. epi.org/publication/black-workers-covid/
29Artiga, S., Garfield, R. & Orgera, K. (7, April 2020). Communities of color at higher risk of health and economic challenges due to COVID-19. Kaiser Family Foundation. https://www.kff.org/disparities-policy/issue-brief/communities-of-color-at-higher-risk-for-health-and-economic-challenges-due-to-covid-19/?utm_campaign=KFF-2020-Uninsured&utm_source=hs_email&utm_medium=email&utm_content=2&_hsenc=p2ANqtz-_UqLIoowVMibewUsBF8kGfwkh4ndUc-Ng7RZ8if---KZNFdsVsWt8UG2un7FH2DxliVe3nEefuXSQR1155GRcIUWd7mg&_hsmi=2
30Lichtveld M. (2018). Disasters Through the Lens of Disparities: Elevate Community Resilience as an Essential Public Health Service. American journal of public health, 108(1), 28–30. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2017.304193
31Covid-19 in congress. (2020). Gov Track. https://www.govtrack.us/covid-19
32Oum, S., Wexler, A. & Kates, J. (2020, March 11). The US response to coronavirus: Summary of the coronavirus preparedness and response supplemental appropriations act 2020. Kaiser Family Foundation. https://www.kff.org/global-health-policy/issue-brief/the-u-s-response-to-coronavirus-summary-of-the-coronavirus-preparedness-and-response-supplemental-appropriations-act-2020/
33Moss,K., Dawson, L., Long, M., Kates, J., Musumeci, M., Cubanski, J., & Pollitz, K. (2020, March 23). The families first coronavirus response act: Summary of key Provisions. Kaiser Family Foundation. https://www.kff.org/global-health-policy/issue-brief/the-families-first-coronavirus-response-act-summary-of-key-provisions/
34The United States Department of the Treasury. (2020) The CARES act works for all americans. Policy Issues. https://home.treasury.gov/policy-issues/cares
35Moss, K., Wexler, A., Dawson, L., Kates, J., Cubanski, J., Musumeci, M., Freed, M., Ramaswamy, A., Ranji, U. & Pollitz, K. (2020, April 9). The coronavirus aid, relief, and economic security act: Summary of key health provisions. Kaiser Family Foundation. https://www.kff.org/global-health-policy/issue-brief/the-coronavirus-aid-relief-and-economic-security-act-summary-of-key-health-provisions/?gclid=EAIaIQobChMI0KK5yYLD6QIViZ-zCh0C_ANLEAAYASAAEgINZ_D_BwE
36Executive Order No. 118 (March 17, 2020) https://files.nc.gov/governor/documents/files/EO118.pdf
37Executive Order No. 124 (March 31, 2020) https://files.nc.gov/governor/documents/files/EO124-Utilities-Evictions-Financial-Services.pdf
38O'Donnell, K. (2020, June 12). Black community braces for next threat: Mass evictions. Politico. https://www.msn.com/en-us/news/us/black-community-braces-for-next-threat-mass-evictions/ar-BB15nJ7B?ocid=sf
39Executive Order No. 134 (April 20, 2020) https://files.nc.gov/governor/documents/files/EO134-UI-Furlough.pdf
40Executive Order No . 142 (May 30, 2020) https://files.nc.gov/governor/documents/files/EO142-Temp-Prohibitions-on-Evictions-and-Extending-Prohibition-on-Utility-Shut-Offs.pdf
41Executive Order No. 143 (June 4, 2020) https://files.nc.gov/governor/documents/files/EO143-Addressing-the-Disproportionate-Impact-of-COVID-19-on-Communities-of-Color.pdf
42North carolina govonor cooper announces executive order addressing disproportionate impact of covid-19 on communities of color. (2020, June 5). WXII. https://www.wxii12.com/article/north-carolina-coronavirus-executive-order-communities-color/32771802
43U.S. Census Bureau (2020). Poverty thresholds by size of family and number of children 2018. [Excel Table]. from https://www.census.gov/data/tables/time-series/demo/income-poverty/historical-poverty-thresholds.html
44Athreya, K., Mather, R., Mustre-del-Rio, J. & Sanchez, J. (2020) Economic impact of COVID-19 part 1: employment vulnerability and (financial) pre-existing conditions. Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond. https://www.richmondfed.org/publications/research/coronavirus#fcf95461f4e84b8085eef4d39128e9a0
45The Impact of the Coronavirus on Food Insecurity. (2020, June 03). Retrieved June 25, 2020, from https://www.feedingamericaaction.org/the-impact-of-coronavirus-on-food-insecurity/
46Spaulding, S. & Okoli, A. (2020, March 26). Who gets to go to college when all college is online? Urban Wire: Education and Training. The blog of the Urban Institute. https://www.urban.org/urban-wire/who-gets-go-college-when-all-college-online

211 Calls (data dashboard)
2-1-1 counts NC. (2020). Top service requests. https://nc.211counts.org/

Essential Workers (all visualizations)

  • Citation 22
  • U.S. Census Bureau. (2019). American Community Survey (ACS), One-Year Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) 2018.[Data set]. U.S. Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/data/pums.html

Hotels (data dashboard)
Google LLC. (2020). Google trends: “Hotels Winston Salem” Interest over time [Data Set]. Google Trends. https://trends.google.com/trends/explore?q=Hotels%20Winston%20Salem&geo=US

Mobility (data dashboard)
Google LLC. (2020). Google COVID-19 community mobility reports. https://www.google.com/covid19/mobility

Part-Time and Seasonal Employees
U.S. Census Bureau. (2019). American Community Survey (ACS), One-Year Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) 2018.[Data set]. U.S. Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/data/pums.html

Potential Long-Term Educational Outcomes (all visualizations)
U.S. Census Bureau. (2019). American Community Survey (ACS), One-Year Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) 2018.[Data set]. U.S. Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/data/pums.html

Poverty (all visualizations)
U.S. Census Bureau. (2019). American Community Survey (ACS), One-Year Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) 2018.[Data set]. U.S. Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/data/pums.html

Residents Who are Food Insecure
Citations 11 and 45

Residents Who Rent their Homes (all visualizations)
U.S. Census Bureau. (2019). American Community Survey (ACS), One-Year Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) 2018.[Data set]. U.S. Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/data/pums.html

Residents without Health Insurance
U.S. Census Bureau. (2019). American Community Survey (ACS), One-Year Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) 2018.[Data set]. U.S. Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/data/pums.html

Restaurants (data dashboard)
OpenTable. (2020). State of the restaurant industry, Full book dataset [Data Set]. https://www.opentable.com/state-of-industry

Unemployment Initial Claims (data dashboard)
US Department of Labor. (2020). Unemployment Insurance Weekly Claims Data [Data Set]. Us Department of Labor Employment & Training Administration. https://oui.doleta.gov/unemploy/claims.asp

Unemployment Estimates (data dashboard)
NC Department of Commerce Labor & Economic Analysis. (2020) Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) [Data Set]. D4 Demand Driven Data Delivery System. https://d4.nccommerce.com/LausSelection.aspx

Workers at Risk of Job Loss (all visualizations)
U.S. Census Bureau. (2019). American Community Survey (ACS), One-Year Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) 2018.[Data set]. U.S. Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/data/pums.html

 

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Change Log

This log contains a record of updates made to this webpage as new content is added:

 

  • July 15, 2020: initial publication
  • July 27, 2020: dashboard data updated
  • August 11, 2020: dashboard data updated
  • September 10, 2020: dashboard data updated

Acknowledgements

The individuals below generously contributed their time and perspectives, without which this community briefing would not be possible.

Dr. Craig Richardson

Craig J. Richardson is the BB&T Distinguished Professor of Economics and the Founding Director of the Center for the Study of Economic Mobility (CSEM) at Winston-Salem State University. Over his 30+ year teaching career, Dr. Richardson has investigated the economics of property rights, regional economics, and global economic development. Early in his career he consulted with the Peru-based Institute for Liberty and Democracy, the World Bank and the Urban Institute in Washington, D.C. Currently he also works with Hanesbrands, Inc.’s Corporate Social Responsibility Group, and has traveled to four continents visiting their factories and interviewing their factory workers. Dr. Richardson has also published articles for The Wall Street Journal, Barron’s, and Forbes, as well as many peer-reviewed academic journals. Dr. Richardson earned a B.A. with honors in economics from Kenyon College, and his Ph.D. in economics from The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Allan Younger

Mr. Younger works for Forsyth Technical Community College (FTCC) as the Director of the Small Business Center. The Small Business Center’s commitment is to “increase business success” for local clients. Mr. Younger is also the organizer of the Entrepreneurial Ecosystem of Forsyth County and President of the North Carolina Community College Adult Educators Association. He has written more than 60 published articles about business development and owns GRACE Consulting which provides business effectiveness consulting, leadership development, and community relations to several organizations.

Mr. Younger also teaches business classes to undergraduate students at Winston Salem State University, Salem College, and Carolina Christian College. He serves on several local, regional, and statewide Boards and committees; he is pleased to have been elected to serve on the boards of the NC Adult Educators Association, the Atkins Community Development Corporation, and the Winston Salem Foundation. He strongly believes that business leaders must be actively engaged in their communities. He believes that we each have a role to play in making our community the best that it can be.

Dr. Zagros Madjd-Sadjadi

Zagros Madjd-Sadjadi is a Full Professor in Economics and is Chair-elect of the Department of Accounting, Economics, and Finance at Winston-Salem State University. He is the former Chief Economist of the City and County of San Francisco and has been an economic consultant for major corporations and non-governmental organizations for nearly 25 years.

Magalie Yacinthe

Magalie, an alumnus of Florida Agricultural & Mechanical University, is a conscious entrepreneur and community leader that has a passion for social enterprises. Magalie currently serves as Interim Executive Director for HUSTLE Winston-Salem, an organization focused on inclusive entrepreneurship by positively impacting systems, entrepreneurial storytelling, and providing solutions.

She is the owner of SO-IN Forsyth, a socially innovative oil company that is building community equity through sustainability. Magalie’s motivation for SO-IN Forsyth is deeply rooted in creating a local bio-economy with a circular model that benefits all people. This is essential to the core of who she is. In 2014, Magalie started YES- Yacinthe Event Services, a cost effective event strategy and solutions firm, to help businesses and nonprofits accomplish successful programming while carrying out their missions.

Magalie serves as Board Vice-Chair for Forsyth Futures and Board Communications Chair for Delta Arts Center. She is a 2018 graduate of Leadership Winston-Salem, and a member of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc. In 2018, the City Council and the Human Relations Commission honored Magalie as a recipient of the Martin Luther King Jr. Young Dreamers Award.

Dr. Megan Regan

Dr. Regan is a visiting associate professor at Wake Forest University. She has a master’s in educational leadership and a Ph.D. in agricultural economics from the University of Florida. Dr. Regan’s expertise shines a light on the challenges facing the working poor and the difficulties people at the poverty level face when trying to access support services. She can discuss how the lack of property insurance and the threat of job loss for hourly workers affects decision-making during natural disasters, such as Hurricanes Florence and Michael. Dr. Regan can also address price gouging and the role of government when insurance companies refuse coverage based on determinations of what caused the property damage (ie, flood vs. wind damage). Gentrification and how it affects local communities is another area of expertise.

Dr. Tina Marsh Dalton

Tina Marsh Dalton, Ph.D., is a health economist affiliated with Wake Forest University and Wake Forest School of Medicine. She is an Associate Professor and the Hough Family Fellow. Her work examines the intersection of health economics and markets, focusing on improving health care and health outcomes by analyzing how markets for health care goods are organized and services are provided. She has published in the areas of insurance, nonprofit and for-profit health care provision, and methods for measuring how consumers respond to changes in prices of care and the economic impact of national and local health policy. Dr. Dalton received her Ph.D. in Economics from the University of Minnesota and her undergraduate degree from Cornell University.

The Forsyth Futures team would also like to acknowledge Daniel Ludolf and Trey Kieser for their significant contributions in producing the data contained in this community briefing.

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